Rhetorical Analysis: Music Video


1. Identify the Argument - I love you tender, I would never bring you any kind of sorrow.

2. Target Audience - Scandinavian youths in the 70s who were into the pop music scene, especially when they sang in English. This Finnish video may have wanted to target Americans, considering that it was sung in English, but I highly doubt it made it across the Atlantic very successfully.

3. How the Argument is Made
Ethos - Well considering that they have a boy singing to a girl and vice versa, they are established as lovers or a couple based on the fact that they are singing, "I love you" to an actual person. The problem lies more in the fact that they are in space and that are weird aerobic dancers all around them, that makes what they are saying seem kind of ridiculous. They use an intimate and informal tone, when singing to each other which is fitting for the argument that they are making, but the tone of the music and the environment undermines their credibility,

Pathos - The guy sings, "I love you I want to love you tender, you could be my only sweet surrender, I would never bring you any kind of sorrow." - This appeals to a fear of rejection or betrayal by confessing your love to a guy and then him deciding he doesn't feel the same way. Also he has some sort of sex appeal with his tight pants and low-cut shirt. The girl appeals to the emotion of insecurity when she sings, "How can I be sure you're not pretender, you want me today but what about tomorrow?" - and the guy continues to try and reconcile her insecurities by telling her that he wants to be her "loving vendor" and that he wants to take her where no one can deceive her.

Logos - There is no statistical data or real logic in this song, but one could possibly deduct that if he tells her that he loves her, he will never leave her because people who are in love don't abandon each other. But that's about all the logic I could glean from this galactic performance.

Sufficient Evidence - Not really, there are promises of love and devotion, but we only see him dance with her and then drive off with her into the stars. We don't know if he is driving her off into happily ever after, or a one-night stand.

4. Was it effective and Why? - Well considering the interesting use of the English language, the strange dancing, setting and stiff almost robotic lead singers, I am gonna have to say, no. I think its ineffective mostly because setting and the dancing and the outfits are completely incohesive. There is nothing that unites them other than the song so the whole music video you are laughing at the words, the dance moves or the crappy space simulation instead of listening to the message and argument of the song.


Tattoos: For Angels, Demons and Everything In Between

For every artistic medium there are corresponding masters that left such a mark on their particular area of expertise that they are forever associated with it. In painting you have Da Vinci, Rembrandt, Monet; in sculpture, Michelangelo and Rodin; but what about in skin?

Where once traditional art forms such as, painting, drawing, and sculpture had somewhat of a monopoly on artistry, the emergence of a new class of creative genius in the fields of music, fashion, film and even tattooing have spotlighted the existence of Picassos, Van Goghs, and Matisses in more unconventional creative fields.

Daniel Walker, 26, is one such innovator.

While working as a volunteer teacher in Guatemala, Walker supplemented his meager per dium of about 80 bucks a month, by selling street art to tourists.

Beto, a fellow street vendor, admired his sketches and asked Walker to give him a tattoo; three extension cords later, he completed his first body art on the roof of a hotel.

“I did all my first tattoos in Guatemala and Mexico as a scratcher (someone with no formal training),” Walker said. “I didn’t have any equipment, Beto had machines, and I did a few tattoos, not the right way, but you have to start somewhere.”

And unfortunately, scratching is the route most amateur tattooers have to take. To be considered a professional tattoo artist, you have to do an apprenticeship that can last anywhere from one to several years, but scratchers are mediocre artists one day and self-proclaimed “tattooers” the next.

“There are schools but they’re all horrible and none of them are qualified and that’s a new a thing because of the tattoo craze,” Walker said. “They charge 5 to 10,000 dollars and it’s a 3 week or 3 month crash course and then they think they are a tattoo artist. I don’t.”

In contrast to tattoo school, an apprenticeship is all about testing your mettle. “You don’t get paid anything, you’re here [at the shop] all the time, you do all the cleaning, the “bitch” work and that’s pretty much where an apprentice begins,” Walker said. “You have to prove that you’re into it, that you’re here to tattoo.”

Any real artist takes this training very seriously and puts their apprentice through the hoops before they even touch a machine. For 6 months to year they mop the floor, clean the bathroom, clean the tubes, watch and draw. Putting in 50 hours a week with no pay, an apprentice has to have a second job to even survive said Walker.

But at the end of that time, when the art’s there, they’ve learned how to make needles, sterilize, tune and build machines, the apprentice starts tattooing their friends for free and once their tattoos start looking decent, they’re an artist.

But just because someone works or owns a tattoo parlor does not mean that they’re qualified.

“It’s a piece of cake to open a shop - you just rent a building and start tattooing,” Walker said. “A scratcher is the enemy of the industry. We don’t care, they can have all the tattoos they can get but it’s unsafe and they haven’t been trained to understand that.”

With no “Bureau of Tattoo Art” to issue certificates to pros and to crackdown on scratchers, the only thing a real tattoo artist can do is to get licensed through the health department by undergoing training in blood-born pathogens and infection control.

Painted Temple, the shop where Walker has worked for a year and a half, “stole” him from the parlor where he did his apprenticeship. Something like that could have started a war only a few years ago, resulting in shops burning down.

There is an unwritten code that you don’t steal other shop’s artists, you don’t finish tattoos other shops have started, you don’t talk badly about other shops, and you don’t open a shop anywhere near one you’ve worked at, otherwise you’re asking for a war, Walker said.

But thankfully, even after swiping Walker, Painted Temple is still standing.

Opened in September 2005 by a tattoo artist named Oak, Painted Temple is an all-custom shop. As opposed to street shops, a custom parlor doesn’t do any flash, which are books of bulk designs sold to shops by artists throughout the country.

“If people bring [flash] in, we tell them every single time, do you mind if I redraw that?” Walker said. “For the most part we work off of photographs.”

But tattoos are trendy right now and when it comes down to it, there are two types of people who want them - people who are looking to be excluded from some part of society – like Walker - and people who are looking to be included in some part of society.

“The first tattoo I got was my last name,” Walker said. “Really I was testing the waters. I wanted to get something I wasn’t going to regret later, that I’d always be proud of and that I could afford.“

Although Walker was underage, 17, (legally you have to be 18), 15 tattoos and 9 years later, he has never regretted his first one because it gave him an outlet for his individuality.

“I’ve always felt separate from the mainstream culture,” Walker said. “Growing up in Utah was definitely a struggle, I didn’t feel like I could be myself ever.”

Inspired by his welder and diesel mechanic grandfathers, Walker saw in tattooing the ability to be a craftsman, someone who knows everything about what they do – “how it begins, how it ends and why.”

“They put their heart into what they did,” Walker said. “ The average mechanic today is a specialist, my grandpa could build anything from the ground up, if he didn’t have a part he could make it on a lathe - he was an artist.”

And so is Walker. While explaining how his machines work, he held his tools with a delicate but steady hand. With each tattoo requiring 3 to 5 different machines with varying needle sizes for thin lines, shading, black, grey or colored ink, Walker deftly switches between machines like a painter switches paintbrushes.

While some of his machines are decorated with snakeskin and hammered metal, the majority are embellished with various types of money – Mexican, Honduran, American.

Tattoo artists say that if you put money on your machine, it’ll make money for you. But if things get really hard, at least you’ll still have a couple dollars. But with tattoos only continuing to grow in popularity, the money serves more as ornamentation, than a safety net.

From 100 percent biodegradable, organic and vegan ink to better equipment and popular shows like Miami Ink on TLC and Inked on A&E, tattoos are losing their underground status, shifting from the shoulders and chests of army/navy men and convicts to the lower backs and ankles of suburban soccer moms.

“I’ve tattooed 70 year-olds to 18 year-olds, every race, men, women, the super religious to ex-convicts,” Walker said.

In the 1890s, American socialite Ward McAllister condemned tattoos as “the most vulgar and barbarous habit the eccentric mind of fashion ever invented.” While deeming them suitable for the likes of illiterate seaman, McAllister declared tattoos to be absolutely unacceptable for aristocrats and other members of polite society, according to vanishingtattoo.com.

But in 2008, tattoos are everywhere and on everyone, aristocratic or otherwise. Entering mainstream society on the backs, arms, necks and wrists of supermodels, sports figures, actors, and rock stars, tattoos have lost their lower-class status and their deviant stigma.

In 1997, the Chicago Tribune reported that the growing tattoo trend is due to “a greater number of ink colors, the fact that fine artists are entering the field and the proliferation of celebrity tattoos.”

Young people no longer see body art as a way to separate themselves from society, but as a form of decoration and self-expression. And tattoo parlors are no longer dirty, “assembly-line service” vehicles for urban outlaw culture. They have emerged as custom, “by-appointment”, fine art studios aimed at middle and upper middle-class professionals, according to tattooartist.com.

Despite this growing national trend, in Utah, the proliferation of tattoo culture has been somewhat limited by the predominance of the LDS church, which discourages it’s members from marking their bodies in any way. But because tattoos are not seen as grounds for excommunication or damnation, some LDS church members still choose to get them.

This unique LDS environment has helped to sustain the counter-culture image of tattoos in the eyes of LDS Utahns. While in other states, tattoos are seen as harmless forms of self-expression, in Utah, tattoos have still retained their rebellious edge.

Aaron Fernuik, a 25 year-old psychology major at BYU, has a Union Jack on his elbow and is in the process of getting the personification of Pistol, his St. Bernard puppy, on his upper arm.

“There is such a stigma in our church that because the prophet says don’t get tattoos you are somehow a bad person for getting one,” Fernuik said. “So I wanted mine to be really meaningful.”

Not wanting to sound like a sob story, Fernuik explained, “My father was abusive and after years of therapy and finally being able to take care of myself and be my own best friend, I needed a trophy to show a milestone.”

So Fernuik planned a trip to England. He went all by himself and got his first tattoo, the Union Jack, to commemorate a chapter in his life closing and another one opening.

But his London souvenir was met with mixed reviews. “My older sister is so opposed to it, anytime she sees it, she’ll quickly turn her head because she absolutely hates it,” Fernuik said.

Still, others are more complimentary. “Some people see it and they like it,” Fernuik said. “Even though they don’t run out and get a tattoo of their own, it gives them permission to be themselves in a way of their own that may be unacceptable in the way that getting a tattoo is unacceptable.”

But because his particular outlet for expression is not condoned by his Church or his University, when considering a second tattoo, Fernuik decided to ask the honor code office at BYU what the consequences of more body art might be.

“They said that if it was offensive material I’d always have to have it covered, but other than that they would call you into the office, so you could discuss it with someone to make sure you know that the body is not something to be trifled with,” Fernuik said. “No formal warning, kind of a you know better kind of a thing.”

But Fernuik feels like, with tattoos, he does know better. “I will never get a tattoo where I can’t see it because they’re for me,” Fernuik said. “I don’t think I really valued my body before as a temple, but ironically enough, with the tattoos, I do.”

Acting as a visual symbol of his love for his puppy and a reminder not to close off, Fernuik’s second tattoo is also a testament to his own strength and fortitude.

Because of the size and intricacy of his puppy tattoo, Fernuik has already endured five hours in the chair, but he still has four to go until his newest arm adornment is finished.

“I focus on the pain rather than away from the pain to deal with it,” Fernuik said. “It turns out to be an interesting sensation rather than something painful and horrible that you try to avoid.”

But more than that, Fernuik’s tattoos are concrete reminders of speed bumps hurdled and milestones reached. And in the future, he hopes to memorialize other landmark events on his skin, as long as they are as meaningful as their predecessors.

“You have to think, is this life changing enough that I want to give up a portion of my skin to represent this? And most often it’s no,” Fernuik said. “Because if one tattoo means nothing it devalues all of them and I always want to be proud of my tattoos.”


Rhetorical Analysis: Song

The Spice Girls

Yo, I'll tell you what I want, what I really really want,
So tell me what you want, what you really really want,
I'll tell you what I want, what I really really want,
So tell me what you want, what you really really want,
I wanna, I wanna, I wanna, I wanna, I wanna really
really really wanna zigazig ha.

If you want my future forget my past,
If you wanna get with me better make it fast,
Now don't go wasting my precious time,
Get your act together we could be just fine

I'll tell you what I want, what I really really want,
So tell me what you want, what you really really want,
I wanna, I wanna, I wanna, I wanna, I wanna really
really really wanna zigazig ha.

If you wanna be my lover, you gotta get with my friends,
Make it last forever friendship never ends,
If you wanna be my lover, you have got to give,
Taking is too easy, but that's the way it is.

What do you think about that now you know how I feel,
Say you can handle my love are you for real,
I won't be hasty, I'll give you a try
If you really bug me then I'll say goodbye.

Yo I'll tell you what I want, what I really really want,
So tell me what you want, what you really really want,
I wanna, I wanna, I wanna, I wanna, I wanna really
really really wanna zigazig ha.

If you wanna be my lover, you gotta get with my friends,
Make it last forever friendship never ends,
If you wanna be my lover, you have got to give,
Taking is too easy, but that's the way it is.

So here's a story from A to Z, you wanna get with me
you gotta listen carefully,
We got Em in the place who likes it in your face,
we got G like MC who likes it on an
Easy V doesn't come for free, she's a real lady,
and as for me..ah you'll see,
Slam your body down and wind it all around
Slam your body down and wind it all around.

If you wanna be my lover, you gotta get with my friends,
Make it last forever friendship never ends,
If you wanna be my lover, you have got to give,
Taking is too easy, but that's the way it is.

If you wanna be my lover, you gotta, you gotta, you
you gotta, you gotta, slam, slam, slam, slam
Slam your body down and wind it all around.
Slam your body down and wind it all around.
Slam your body down and wind it all around.
Slam your body down zigazig ah
If you wannabe my lover.

1. Identify the argument - If you wanna be my lover, you gotta get with my friends.

2. Target Audience - Any guy who has an interest in one of the Spice Girls or any girl that has adopted the Spice Girls' songs as part of their own personal mantra. These men could range from 18 to 45 and the girls probably range from 20 to 30. They obviously have to pay attention to pop culture so they have some idea of who the Spice Girls are and they probably either own an entire Spice Girl's album or at least a few of their songs.

3. How the Argument is Made
Ethos - Well the Spice Girls are the foremost authority on who they would choose to be they're lover so as far as being experts in any one field, that would be it. They address their audience in a catchy pop song which makes it kind of hard to take them seriously, but the Spice Girls are good looking ladies so I think men listened to what they said based solely on that fact. Their various "titles" - Sporty, Baby, Posh, Ginger, and Scary - would suggest that they each have a specific area of expertise within the group, although none of them are relevant to this song.

Pathos - The sex appeal of this song is quite strong. The entire thing is about what you have to do in order to become one of these girls' lovers. But they are not only speaking to boys, they are also trying to teach girls that no matter how attractive a guy is, he can never take the place of your friends. So the song is also making an appeal to friendship and feelings of belonging.

Logos - Logos has never been one of the Spice Girls' strong points, but in this song they tell you quite plainly that "if you wannabe my lover you goota get with my friends" and "you have got to give". So logically if you fulfill those to requirements, you'll hit the jackpot, Spice Girl-style. But then they kind of throw some other stuff in the mix, but the most important is probably the line that says, "I'll give you a try, if you really bug me then I'll say goodbye". Apparently you are not automatically in if you pass the test of the chorus, you also have to not be annoying, not be hasty, forget her past, and then depending on which Spice you desire there are some other things you should know like, "V" or Victoria "doesn't come for free, she's a real lady" or "Em" a.k.a. Emma who "likes it in her face", etc. And finally you are told to "Slam your body down and wind it all around" basically the song abandons any sort of logic by the end

Sufficient Evidence - I'm not sure that there is sufficient evidence because these girls seem really straight forward, but also kind of confident and bratty - "Think you can handle my love? Are you for real?" - I don't think this song gives you enough evidence to support the argument.

Relevant Evidence - Again, not a lot. "Slam your body down and zigahzig ah" isn't even English so I am not sure what they are trying to argue with that. But there is some relevant evidence, like when they try to tell explain why you have to get with they're friends in order to be they're lover - "Friendship never ends".

Citibank Commercials are Way Cooler

So it happened. I finally became a victim of identity theft. I'm not happy about this, nor am I glad that I finally "got it out of my system" but they always say don't think it can't happen to you, so I am just trying to be Zen and take what life throws at me.

Thankfully so far the only thing this vagabond charged to my card was $8.76 worth of games purchased through my itunes account. Now I am very glad that they didn't clean me out or even overdraw my account, but who even buys games on itunes? I wanted my identity stolen by someone cool like in those Citibank commercials - people who go on cruises or buy a bunch of shoes or something else extravagant, but I got blessed with a boring identity thief who is content to skim minimal amounts of money off of other people's accounts so they can play bowling on their ipod. That is lame. I had to go through all of the trouble of cancelling my card and emailing Apple, who was kind enough to reimburse me the $8.76 although they did warn me that it would only be a one-time thing, for some silly video games.

I guess this is just another way the bad economy is manifesting itself in consumer behavior. I wonder if my I.T (Identity Thief) was just a normal guy or girl who liked to occasionally go on itunes and buy games for their ipod, but when the stockmarket crashed in September they had to start trimming their spending and they found that they could either spend a few dollars here and there for entertainment or pay the rent. And maybe my I.T. is up and coming in some hip and trendy ipod gamers association and to lose the ability to keep up on the latest games would mean losing his/her main source of "social interaction" and a chance to beat someone else's high score and gain full initiation into the club. If this was the case, I guess I could sympathize, but in the end this anonymouse person who posed as me on November 6th at 8:29 PM caused me a lot of trouble and they should be ashamed.


Feeling Uncomfortable for $20 or Less

If you think about it, restaurants are a sort of extension of our own kitchen/dining rooms. We go to restaurants to celebrate birthdays and other special events, to gather with friends and family, to get to know potential significant others, or to just take a break from cooking for ourselves. People talk about rather private things in restaurants although they are surrounded and served by complete strangers. They expect to be afforded a large amount of privacy, and only accept interruption in order to select an entree or have their drinks refilled, etc. Accordingly, there is a large amount of trust placed in the waiter/waitress to respect this delicate balance between the publicity of the setting and the privacy of the individual tables.

But this is not the case in Hibachi restaurants. These eateries have a style all their own that breaks almost all the unwritten rules in the social contract between patrons and the traditional American sit-down restaurant.

When you walk in to a Hibachi grill like Benihanas, Asuka, or Teppanyaki steakhouse, it appears to be a somewhat normal Asian fusion restaurant. But you may be surprised when you are seated around a grill, in a sort of u-shaped formation, with complete strangers. While your seating arrangement is awkward and increases the difficulty of having an intimate conversation unless you are seated right next to the other members of your party, this is probably not the most “offensive” thing to happen to you in the course of your meal.

Thankfully there is a traditional waiter who takes your drink, appetizer, and meal order, but after the waiter brings you your beverage and any appetizers you may have requested, you never see him again until he brings you the check. And before you can fully appreciate just how dear an unassuming waiter can be, your chef replaces him. The chef comes traipsing up to your table in a costume that is something of a cross between a traditional Japanese drummer outfit and the Swedish Chef’s getup on “The Muppet Show”. Wheeling a cart loaded with assorted raw meats, seafood, vegetables, and sauces, in addition to some very loud, very sharp machete-style cooking utensils, he breaks the isolation and peace of your table with little to no warning.

But just when you think your restaurant experience has fallen completely into anarchy, your chef proceeds to talk to you for your whole meal, make fun of the people in your group, tell incredibly lame-to-the-point-of-being-awkward jokes, throw food at you, give you other people’s food and basically break every other unwritten rule concerning dining out in the United States.

Although you may leave with a satisfied stomach, you also take with you a somewhat shell-shocked feeling. A sort of parting gift from the restaurant, this complimentary combination of violation and discomfort is the Hibachi version of a breath mint with your check.

I don't understand why people enjoy going to these places. I’m sorry but your chef is not supposed to make your food in front of you, and he is certainly not supposed to talk to you throughout your meal. Would you be comfortable with a complete stranger barging into your dining room while you’re enjoying a private family conversation over a meal? What if he started throwing food at you? Would you call the police? I think so.

Lions and Tigers and Pregnancy, OH MY!

I had a nightmare last night.
It started out as an ambiguous, but innocuous dream, I was at my old house in Kansas City, busily running around doing work and feeling kind of stressed and then I got a phone call.
I answered the phone and a female voice said, "I have your test results."
"This is the last thing I need right now," I sighed.
"You're pregnant," she said.
"Oh crap . . . What is it?", I said with a feeling of dread although I wasn't shocked for some reason.
"It's a boy," she said and hung up.
Well I was not pleased with the news, I went in the other room and my sister was there with her husband, I told them what had happened, and they were happy for me despite my obvious distaste for the idea. Then I told my Mom and she took me to the doctor's office.
The next thing I knew my stomach was huge and I was all alone in a hospital room and although I wasn't feeling any pain I knew the baby was coming. I called for my Mom and the Doctor over and over but nobody came. I was terrified and I started crying, I knew that I was going to be in some serious pain soon, so serious that having a needle shoved into my spine would be a welcome relief. I started crying even harder picturing the needle so I called louder for anybody to come help me because I was having a baby and I was all alone, and then I woke up.
I was still crying and filled with terror and complete despair over the fact that I was going to have a baby and it was going to really hurt and I was going to get stretch marks, and no one would be there to help me.
I guess I should mention that I'm married, but I am NOT pregnant and don't plan to be for awhile, but I was so distressed and tired that I was convinced that I was so I turned to my sleeping husband and hit him in the arm because it was obviously his fault; I was pregnant and in the hospital and he wasn't there - in my book it's two strikes you're out in this situation.
Thinking about this harder, I realized that it is kind of odd that I have bad dreams that wake me up in tears about pregnancy. Does this mean that getting pregnant is my greatest fear? I think at this point in my life, it is.
I want to say that I am looking forward to having children, but obviously I am not quite mature enough yet because it scares me so much that it makes me cry and hit people.

Rhetorical Analysis: My Paper A

1. Identify the Argument - People should not try to conform to the "BYU Barbie" ideal in order to get asked out/find a husband.

2. Target Audience - Single, female BYU students who do not fit this cultural "ideal", and are desperately trying to in order to date more and hopefully find their husband. They are not necessarily plain, or devoid of social skills, but they feel like they have exhausted their own resources in trying to be "dateable" and so they are conforming in frustration.

3. How the Argument is Made -
Ethos - I chose to take a more informal tone to address my fellow students because they are more likely to listen to someone that they feel is just like them. I am credible because I have been at BYU for 5 years and have experienced the ups and downs of the dating scene. I also am credible because I survived and managed to meet my husband.
Pathos - Most girls at BYU are sensitive about their dating situation, either because it's fragile or non-existant. It's an emotional subject because dating involves the euphoria of meeting someone who likes you and the terrible pain of heartbreak. But I am arguing that to avoid unnecessary heartbreak for them or the boys they dupe, they should just be themselves so that they can meet their "dream man" and be happy in the end. I think everyone wants to find their own version of happily ever after and they emotional investment involved makes it a very tender issue.
Logos - I appealed to their logic mostly by telling them about my personal experience , the example of my roommate, a study form a BYU professor about BYU dating, and then some excerpts form a talk from Dalin H. Oaks, an apostle.I tried to help them see that being yourself is more important in the long run and that it's more important to actually end up with someone you want to be with rather than go on lots of dates with people you won't be happy with for long.
Sufficient Evidence - I actually think I need a lot more evidence, not necessarily in the form of journal articles or studies, but I think I need to get some quotes from BYU students, male and female in order to address counterarguments and support some of the points that I made.

4. Was it Effective and Why?
I think my argument was somewhat effective, but not quite complete. I waxed eloquent a lot and then didn't provide a lot of support for some of the assumptions/points that I made.I also didn't really address or even bring up counterarguments at all. But I think my tone was good and the direction that I started going was good, I just need to be more concise and have more backing up what I say to make my argument more effective.